Is it a coincidence that our great leaders have been training troops for a “zombie apocalypse”?
When new diseases appear it’s a good idea to check for new toxins in the food or environment. Recent studies show sex-dependent response to GMO corn.
A Comparison of the Effects of Three GM Corn Varieties on Mammalian Health
We present for the first time a comparative analysis of blood and organ system data from trials with rats fed three main commercialized genetically modified (GM) maize (NK 603, MON 810, MON 863), which are present in food and feed in the world. NK 603 has been modified to be tolerant to the broad spectrum herbicide Roundup and thus contains residues of this formulation. MON 810 and MON 863 are engineered to synthesize two different Bt toxins used as insecticides. Approximately 60 different biochemical parameters were classified per organ and measured in serum and urine after 5 and 14 weeks of feeding. GM maize-fed rats were compared first to their respective isogenic or parental non-GM equivalent control groups. This was followed by comparison to six reference groups, which had consumed various other non-GM maize varieties. We applied nonparametric methods, including multiple pairwise comparisons with a False Discovery Rate approach. Principal Component Analysis allowed the investigation of scattering of different factors (sex, weeks of feeding, diet, dose and group). Our analysis clearly reveals for the 3 GMOs new side effects linked with GM maize consumption, which were sex- and often dose-dependent. Effects were mostly associated with the kidney and liver, the dietary detoxifying organs, although different between the 3 GMOs. Other effects were also noticed in the heart, adrenal glands, spleen and haematopoietic system. We conclude that these data highlight signs of hepatorenal toxicity, possibly due to the new pesticides specific to each GM corn. In addition, unintended direct or indirect metabolic consequences of the genetic modification cannot be excluded. …
Males are clearly more sensitive than female animals to show physiological disturbances when fed NK 603. This is not observed for all three GM maize varieties. Moreover, most effects appear to be dose-dependent since 83% of male effects emerge only at the 33% feeding level (15/18), the highest GM maize concentration in the diet (Table 1). The maximal mean differences are observed in male kidney parameters. …
Feeding of MON 810 resulted in 11/15 significant effects in females (Table 2, crude means with SEM; Annex Table G), which again highlights sex-differential effects. The sex-dependency for the measured parameters in liver and kidney is observed for all rats (Annex Fig. A & Fig. B). The significant GM-maize linked effects are generally detected either after 14 weeks of consumption or at a high GM feed dose in the diet. Parameters affected relate to: blood cells, adrenal gland and kidney weights, an increase in blood urea nitrogen and higher spleen weight. Significantly disturbed parameters in males are concentrated in liver function at the 33% GM-maize feeding level in the diet, with a slight diminution in general serum albumin production. All disturbances are <20% and p-values are significant but >1% (Table 2, starred values). However, p-values adjusted for FDR are not significant. …
We have already described our evaluation of the MON 863 rat feeding studies . Sex-dependency is well marked in this case also for the spreading of all parameters in liver and kidney (Annex Fig. C & Fig. D). The 34 significant GM-linked effects are equally distributed among males (16) and females (18). This contrasts with what is observed with NK 603 and MON 810. Nevertheless, 9/16 (56%) of males show statistically significant differences in kidney compared to 4/18 females. However, although kidney parameters represent only 37.5% of all measurements, these data show a male-specific effect in kidney function. This trend is somewhat opposite to what is seen in liver parameters where males showed significant effects in 5/16 cases whereas the rate is 9/18 in females. Male rats also appear more sensitive to kidney disturbances at the higher GM feeding dose (11 effects at 33% versus 5 at 11%). …