As figures emerge about the disproportionate toll that COVID-19 is taking on people of colour in the United States, scientists are suggesting measures to help mitigate the inequalities.
They say that better data are needed on the incidence of the disease, that testing needs to be ramped up and that hospitals serving people at-risk need to better prepare. Researchers and some US lawmakers are now calling for a national commission devoted to identifying racial disparities in health that would act as a unified voice in trying to overcome them.
Researchers note that this will be important to stopping the disease’s overall spread. “It is a major health-disparities issue, but it’s also a major health issue for all,” says Cato Laurencin, an orthopaedic surgeon and biomedical engineer at the University of Connecticut in Farmington, who led a roundtable discussion on diversity at the National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine.
This is not solely a US problem — an analysis of UK national health records published in May1 showed that black residents and those of Asian descent were at a higher risk of dying from the virus than were white people — but the disparities are harshly felt in the United States, which currently has the highest number of COVID-19 infections and deaths.
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) started releasing death and infection rates broken down by race and ethnicity in late April, only after a public outcry from lawmakers, doctors and civil-rights groups.
The breakdowns were available for just 35% of US deaths. But as these and other data have started to come in, they paint a stark picture of disproportionate disease burden.
As of early May, New York City reported more than twice as many deaths per 100,000 residents for African and Latino Americans than for white people2. The city’s highest rates of hospitalization and death occurred in the Bronx, the borough with the highest proportion of African American residents3. In Michigan, black people account for 32% of COVID-19 cases and 41% of deaths. They make up just 14% of the population.
Many of the causes for these health disparities are systemic and well known. “We’re getting infected more because we are exposed more and less protected,” says Camara Phyllis Jones, an epidemiologist at the Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. Existing socio-economic and health disparities — caused by historical segregation and endemic racism in the United States — can at least partially explain why people of colour are getting sick and dying at disproportionate rates.
In many parts of the United States, people of colour make up a higher proportion of some low-paid professions that have elevated risks of exposure to the virus — those who staff grocery stores, drive buses and work at food plants, for example. Also, COVID-19 is deadlier for people with chronic conditions, including diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. These have a higher incidence in many minority ethnic and racial groups. …
Communities of colour have historically been mistrustful of health systems, in part because they have been underserved or exploited. So, researchers must build relationships with these communities so that trials for COVID-19 treatments and vaccinations include people from all ethnic and racial groups, Hammonds says….
It’s like politics, you just have to vote harder if you hope for change. Clearly we need more money and more medical researchers to rationalize the increasing medicalization of minority communities if we’re going to fix these unfortunate (and often uncircumcised) savages. And of course we need more vaccines and more trust in medicine among minorities. The trust issue could be addressed with shock therapy, but until the vaccine depopulation agenda is more advanced http://thoughtcrimeradio.net/2013/03/cdc-lying-about-safety-of-tetanus-vaccine-in-pregnancy/ there just won’t be enough medicine to go around.
Diabetes: A risk factor is low vitamin D
- Diabetes is 5X more frequent far from the equator
- Children getting 2,000 IU of vitamin D are 8X less likely to get Type 1 diabetes
- Obese people get less sun / Vitamin D – and also vitamin D gets lost in fat
- Sedentary people get less sun / Vitamin D
- Worldwide Diabetes increase has been concurrent with vitamin D decrease and air conditioning
- Elderly get 4X less vitamin D from the same amount of sun
Elderly also spend less time outdoors and have more clothes on
- All items in category Diabetes and Vitamin D 448 items: both Type 1 and Type 2
Vitamin D appears to both prevent and treat diabetes
- Appears that >2,000 IU will Prevent
- Appears that >4,000 IU will Treat , but not cure
- Appears that Calcium and Magnesium are needed for both Prevention and Treatment
- which are just some of the vitamin D cofactors
Number of articles in both categories of Diabetes and:
- Dark Skin 22; Intervention 48; Meta-analysis 28; Obesity 26; Pregnancy 39; T1 (child) 34; Omega-3 10; Vitamin D Receptor 18; Genetics 10; Magnesium 18 Click here to see details
Table of contents
90% less T2 Diabetes in group having lots of Vitamin D
See Diabetes items in VitaminDWiki
Diabetes AND Infant-Child (a proxie for T1 Diabetes) AND Intervention
See also Diabetes and Intervention
See also VitaminDWiki Metabolic Syndrome
See also VitaminDWiki Calcium
From Hypponen – 7X less diabetes for children taking 2,000 IU of vitamin D
Increasing diabetes from CDC Diabetes Report Card 2012
US miltary: 3.5 X more likely to get type I Diabetes if low vitamin D
Percentage change in age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes among adults aged ?18 years Nov 2012
See also web
Diabetes prevented and treated by Curcumin
BMI and Diabetes Washington Post Aug 2015
Vitamin D Council
Diabetes complications (nothing about Vitamin D) – 2016
Finger blood sugar tests do not help unless using Insulin
New type of Insulin (GMO) results in increased deaths – Aug 2017
If diabetic and taking metfomin you must check Vitamin B12 levels
Food more costly ==> more diabetes
Many Diabetic associations recognize plant-based diets – 2019
Diabetic problems: map of the body
The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between obesity and vitamin D status cross-sectionally, the relationship between obesity and the incidence of hypovitaminosis D prospectively and inversely the relationship between vitamin D status and incidence of obesity in a population-based cohort study in Spain. At baseline (1996–1998), 1226 subjects were evaluated and follow-up assessments were performed in 2002–2004 and 2005–2007, participants undergoing an interview and clinical examination with an oral glucose tolerance test. At the second visit, 25-hydroxyvitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone concentrations were also measured. Prevalence of obesity at the three visits was 28.1, 36.2 and 39.5%, respectively. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D ⩽20 ng/ml (⩽50 nmol/l)) was 34.7%. Neither obesity at baseline (OR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.69-1.40, P=0.93) nor the development of obesity between baseline and the second evaluation (OR=0.80, 95% CI: 0.48–1.33, P=0.39) were significantly associated with vitamin D status. In subjects who were non-obese (BMI <30 kg/m2) at the second evaluation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D values ⩽17 ng/ml (⩽42.5 nmol/l) were significantly associated with an increased risk of developing obesity in the next 4 years (OR=2.35, 95% CI: 1.03–5.4, P=0.040 after diverse adjustments). We conclude that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of developing obesity….
Vitamin D deficiency in UK Asian families: activating a new concern
Vitamin D has steroid hormonal effects which can produce clinical symptoms and signs unrelated to calcium homoeostasis. Its deficiency has been implicated as a risk factor for diabetes, ischaemic heart disease, and tuberculosis in Asians. In this review, the incidence, aetiology, prevention, and treatment of symptomatic vitamin D deficiency in childhood are considered. A renewed public health campaign is required in the UK to address the continuing problem of vitamin D deficiency in Asian families….