A few commonly used non-antibiotic drugs have recently been associated with changes in gut microbiome composition, but the extent of this phenomenon is unknown. Here, we screened more than 1,000 marketed drugs against 40 representative gut bacterial strains, and found that 24% of the drugs with human targets, including members of all therapeutic classes, inhibited the growth of at least one strain in vitro. Particular classes, such as the chemically diverse antipsychotics, were overrepresented in this group. The effects of human-targeted drugs on gut bacteria are reflected on their antibiotic-like side effects in humans and are concordant with existing human cohort studies. Susceptibility to antibiotics and human-targeted drugs correlates across bacterial species, suggesting common resistance mechanisms, which we verified for some drugs. The potential risk of non-antibiotics promoting antibiotic resistance warrants further exploration. Our results provide a resource for future research on drug–microbiome interactions, opening new paths for side effect control and drug repurposing, and broadening our view of antibiotic resistance….
Conventional “systems” medicine (anything more complicated than a broken bone) is shown to be toxic once again. And they call naturopaths quacks.
The first step to knowledge is humility, something which is in very short supply in western medicine. Ignorance is not bliss, and ignorance of ignorance is worse.
Researchers now say that the neurons in the gut comprise the body’s “second brain”, but personally I think it’s more profound than that. You could think of the gut microbiome itself as a co-evolving ecosystem which adapts and “mutates” based on its inputs. With beneficial bugs, it’s a synergistic relationship. The number of “neurons” (microbes) in the microbiome far exceeds the total number of human cells in your body, if I recall. What is the information content of the microbiome compared to the info content of the human brain? Perhaps it can be seen as a form of distributed intelligence, but asleep, not self-organized as a whole.